Sunday, April 12, 2020

MACHIAVELLI PART - II

Dr, Kaushik Mitra, Head, Department of Political Science, Lucknow Christian Degree College, Lucknow.. U.P. India.

Machiavelli continued......
                                                                    SEMESTER IV.

TOPIC: MACHIAVELLI

ADVICE TO PRINCE

Ø  He advised the ruler to construct his policies on the assumption that men are bad so he should aim to be feared rather than loved.
Ø  As man judges by appearances crafty rulers should take advantage of it.
Ø  Property and life are universal desire of menhence governments should aim at providing security to both of these.
Ø  The ruler should depend on his own judgment and never trust his counsellors

RELIGION AND MORALITY

Ø  He initiated the process of completely and deliberately separating politics from ethics and religion.
Ø  In 'Discourses' he held that religion made men feeble and therefore, an easy prey to evil minded men.
Ø  His concern was limited to the attainment and maintenance of power. In this regard he was the forerunner of Marx. 
Ø  He was rather unmoral not immoral.
Ø  This was practically involved in works of Aristotlebut was not essential in his system.

STATE

Ø  His interest was in the practical state and his pragmatism lead him 'to get back to the actual truth of things '.  
Ø  He repudiated the idea that the State is a part of the Divine order and could be understood only in the light of the Divine plan.
Ø  He makes materialistic individualism the explanation for love of independence and self-government.
Ø  This idea was later taken up by Marx on the basis of economic forces.
Ø  People desire Republican government as it gives a chance of material gain to a majority of the people.

SOVEREIGNTY

Ø  His idea of sovereignty and corresponding idea of the territorial national -state is an important contribution of Machiavelli according to Jones. 
Ø  His idea of a central authority which is supreme over other institutions was significant in separating Ancient from Modern Political Theory.

TO BE CONTINUED.....................

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MAHATMA GANDHI PART - II

Dr, KaushikMitra Head, Department of Political Science, Lucknow Christian Degree College, Lucknow. . B.A. THIRD YEAR PAPER-II ...