Dr, Kaushik Mitra, Head, Department of Political Science, Lucknow Christian Degree College, Lucknow.. U.P. India.
ADVICE TO PRINCE
Ø He advised the ruler to construct his policies on the assumption that men are bad so he should aim to be feared rather than loved.
Ø As man judges by appearances crafty rulers should take advantage of it.
Ø Property and life are universal desire of menhence governments should aim at providing security to both of these.
Ø The ruler should depend on his own judgment and never trust his counsellors
RELIGION AND MORALITY
Ø He initiated the process of completely and deliberately separating politics from ethics and religion.
Ø In 'Discourses' he held that religion made men feeble and therefore, an easy prey to evil minded men.
Ø His concern was limited to the attainment and maintenance of power. In this regard he was the forerunner of Marx.
Ø He was rather unmoral not immoral.
Ø This was practically involved in works of Aristotlebut was not essential in his system.
Ø His interest was in the practical state and his pragmatism lead him 'to get back to the actual truth of things '.
Ø He repudiated the idea that the State is a part of the Divine order and could be understood only in the light of the Divine plan.
Ø He makes materialistic individualism the explanation for love of independence and self-government.
Ø This idea was later taken up by Marx on the basis of economic forces.
Ø People desire Republican government as it gives a chance of material gain to a majority of the people.
Ø His idea of sovereignty and corresponding idea of the territorial national -state is an important contribution of Machiavelli according to Jones.
Ø His idea of a central authority which is supreme over other institutions was significant in separating Ancient from Modern Political Theory.
TO BE CONTINUED.....................